I. Microbes the foundation of all life on earth
Where do you find microbes?
A. Microbes (not the rainforest) produce the majority of oxygen found on earth
B. Biosphere 2
II. Microbiology Early Years and Questions about LIFE
A. World Population & the Bubonic Plaque
Famous Microbiologists and advancements in understanding the microbial world
The American Society for Microbiology has a complete online history of Microbiology at http://www.asm.org
B. Leeuwenhoek advances the understanding of the microbial world
1. Observation, Documentation, Review, Organizing & Classification
C. Taxonomy Classification of living organisms
1. Eucarya - Composed cells with a nucleus and organelles
a. Animals worldanimalfoundation.homestead.com
Multicelled-forms - mushroom, molds
Unicellular - Single-celled forms - yeast
d. Protistans - Single-Celled organisms with a nucleus
Protozoa (Animal-like) categorized by type of movement
categorized by type of pigmentation
2. Eubacteria (true bacteria) - single celled organisms without a nucleus
a. Cell wall - two types - thick (Gram positive) and fatty or lipid (Gram Negative)
b. 3 main shapes - rods (bacillus) , cocci, and spirilla
Reproduction through binary
fission not mitosis. No sex or
meiosis. (Notice baby bacteria may be oddly shaped).
- Achaea - Ancient bacteria no nucleus, same shapes, different cell wall components, grow in extreme environments such as high salinity or high temperatures.
- Overall Classification Whitaker's 5 kingdoms
5. Microorganisms in our world - nothing is simple.
a. Viruses - non-living, obligate intracellular parasites.
Association of Microorganisms with Roots in the Rhizosphere © Gunter Trolldenier author. Licensed for use, ASM MicrobeLibrary (http://www.microbelibrary.org).
- Spontaneous Generation - Where does life come from?
- The Scientific Method
Using the Scientific Method in Class and later as health care providers or researchers.
- Microbes and Industry -
1. Pasteur and fermentation
2. Buchner and enzymes
A. Koch's Experimentation
1. Germ Theory of Disease
2. Koch's Postulates
a. The causative (etiologic) agent is isolated from a sick individual. This agent is absent in healthy individuals.
b. The agent is cultured, grown outside the host.
c. When the cultured etiologic agent is introduced into a healthy individual, it becomes sick.
d. The etiologic agent is cultured from the experimental sick organism.
B. Preventing Disease
1. Semmelweis - handwashing
2. Lister disinfectants
3. Snow epidemiology
4. Jenner vaccines
5. Ehrlich antibiotics/chemotherapeutic agents
IV. Future of Microbiology
A. Biotechnology a new industrial revolution
genetically engineered products - insulin, clotting factors, hormones
genetically modified organisms - frankenfoods, frankenfish, Glow in the Dark Fish
B. Genetics another revolution
gene therapy - delivery of missing genes
C. Environmental microbiology the beginning of new understanding
Bioremediation - http://www.microbe.org/news/perchlorate_microbe.asp
D. Bioterrorism misuse of our new knowledge and abuse of microbes
Evaluate the contributions of Leeuwenhoek on science today.
List the major groups of organisms studied in microbiology.
Compare and contrast eubacteria and eukaryotic organisms.
Describe how the scientific method was used to study the theory of spontaneous generation.
Define the Germ Theory of Disease.
Utilizing Koch's postulates explain how evidence links the etiologic agent to a specific disease.
List at least three important roles that microbes fulfill in the world today.
Describe the rationale behind classification of microbes.
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Date last updated 08/24/2011