Microbiology Lecture Notes Chapter 1

A Brief History of Microbiology

I. Microbes the foundation of all life on earth

Where do you find microbes?

A.   Microbes (not the rainforest) produce the majority of oxygen found on earth 

B. Biosphere 2 

II.   Microbiology – Early Years and Questions about LIFE

A.   World Population & the Bubonic Plaque

Famous Microbiologists and advancements in understanding the microbial world

The American Society for Microbiology has a complete online history of Microbiology at http://www.asm.org

         B.    Leeuwenhoek advances the understanding of the microbial world 01-02_microscope_1.jpg

1.      Observation, Documentation, Review, Organizing & Classification

         C.  Taxonomy – Classification of living organisms

1.      Eucarya - Composed cells with a nucleus and organelles

a.   Animals   worldanimalfoundation.homestead.com

 

b.    Plants www.laspilitas.com/plants/california_plants.html

 

 

c.    Fungi    01-04a_mold_1.jpg 
 

  1. Multicelled-forms - mushroom, molds

  2. Unicellular - Single-celled forms - yeast

d.    Protistans - Single-Celled organisms with a nucleus

  1. Protozoa (Animal-like) categorized by type of movement 

 01-05c_flagella_3.jpg

  1. Algae (Plant-like) categorized by type of pigmentation
     
    01-06_spirogyra_diatoms_1.jpg


     

2.      Eubacteria (true bacteria) - single celled organisms without a nucleus

01-07_streptococcus_1.jpg

a.   Cell wall - two types - thick (Gram positive) and fatty or lipid (Gram Negative)

b.    3 main shapes - rods (bacillus) , cocci, and spirilla

11-01_prokaryotic_1.jpg

c.    Reproduction through binary fission not mitosis. No sex or meiosis. (Notice baby bacteria may be oddly shaped).
11-03_snappingdiv_3.jpg

  1. Achaea - Ancient bacteria – no nucleus, same shapes, different cell wall components, grow in extreme environments such as high salinity or high temperatures.
  2. Overall Classification Whitaker's 5 kingdoms

04-26_whitaker_1.jpg

5. Microorganisms in our world - nothing is simple.

a. Viruses - non-living, obligate intracellular parasites.

b. symbionts

c. biofilms

    

Association of Microorganisms with Roots in the Rhizosphere © Gunter Trolldenier author. Licensed for use, ASM MicrobeLibrary (http://www.microbelibrary.org).

  1.  Spontaneous Generation - Where does life come from?
  2. The Scientific Method 

     

    01-12a_pasteurexp_1.jpg
    01-12b_pasteurexp_1.jpg

    Using the Scientific Method in Class and later as health care providers or researchers.

  1.    Microbes and Industry -

    1. Pasteur and fermentation

    01-14_pastrferm-1_1.jpg

    01-14_pastrferm-2_1.jpg

    2. Buchner and enzymes

    01-15_buchnerferm_1.jpg

  1. Microbes and Disease

        A. Koch's Experimentation

            1. Germ Theory of Disease

    01-17_coloniesagar_1.jpg

            2. Koch's Postulates

                a. The causative (etiologic) agent is isolated from a sick individual. This agent is absent in healthy individuals.

                b. The agent is cultured, grown outside the host.

                c. When the cultured etiologic agent is introduced into a healthy individual, it becomes sick.

                d. The etiologic agent is cultured from the experimental sick organism.

        B. Preventing Disease

              1. Semmelweis - handwashing

              2. Lister – disinfectants

              3. Snow – epidemiology

              4. Jenner – vaccines

              5. Ehrlich – antibiotics/chemotherapeutic agents

IV. Future of Microbiology

        A.    Biotechnology a new industrial revolution

  1. genetically engineered products - insulin, clotting factors, hormones

  2. genetically modified organisms - frankenfoods, frankenfish, Glow in the Dark Fish    

        B.    Genetics another revolution

  1. bioengineered vaccines

  2. gene therapy - delivery of missing genes

        C.    Environmental microbiology – the beginning of new understanding

Bioremediation - http://www.microbe.org/news/perchlorate_microbe.asp

        D.    Bioterrorism – misuse of our new knowledge and abuse of microbes

Chapter 1 Brief History of Microbiology
  1. Evaluate the contributions of Leeuwenhoek on science today.

  2. List the major groups of organisms studied in microbiology.

  3. Compare and contrast eubacteria and eukaryotic organisms.

  4. Describe how the scientific method was used to study the theory of spontaneous generation.

  5. Define the Germ Theory of Disease.

  6. Utilizing Koch's postulates explain how evidence links the etiologic agent to a specific disease.

  7. List at least three important roles that microbes fulfill in the world today.

  8. Describe the rationale behind classification of microbes.

 

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Date last updated 08/24/2011
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