I. Microbiology General Issues
A. Microbiology Techniques
b) Biochemical examination – metabolic by-products
2. Direct Observation
i. Light microscope
ii. Fluorescent abs & UV microscope
3. Direct detection through specific products
a) Immunologic techniques
b) Molecular techniques - DNA
4. Serology – antibody or antigen detection
B. Transportation of Specimens
1. Collection, place, timing
2. Transport and transport media
5. Rejecting Unacceptable specimens
a) Enriched, selective specialized
b) Broth, solid
b) Aerobic vs anaerobic
II. Lab Safety
1. Prevention of infection
with laboratory cultures.
2. Prevention of harm from lab equipment.
3. Proper containment of hazardous waste.
4. Manage safety breaches by recording and correcting any unsafe practices.
5. Universal precautions
6. Material Safety Data Sheet - MSDS
A. Microbes used in the Microbiology lab may cause harm if they are introduced into a susceptible person.
1. Agent safety assessment.
Biosafety levels: 1, 2, 3, 4.
2. Common agents the microbiology lab
3. Proper treatment and protocol
4. Knowledge of risk associated with labs and biosafety containment .
B. Safety equipment
1. Laminar flow hood
2. UV light
3. Incinerators and flammable reagents
4. Microscope and electrical outlet
7. Hypodermics and other sharp objects
8. Slide warmer, incubator
C. Safe disposal of biohazards requires careful training and waste streaming.
1. Biohazard table – sharps, glass, plates
2. Biohazard bags
3. Minimize contact, timing and sterilization
D. Recording safety breaches –
1. Alert supervisor immediately
2. Document and consult MSDS
3. Assess cause and correct procedure or practice
E. Universal Precautions
1. Barriers – PPG – gloves, masks, labcoats
Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Update: Universal Precautions for Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, and Other Bloodborne Pathogens in Health-Care Settings http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00000039.htm
The risk of nosocomial transmission of HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens can be minimized if health-care workers use the following general guidelines:**
2. Fluids that transmit blood borne pathogens
|Use Standard Precautions for the care of all patients|
|In addition to Standard Precautions, use Airborne Precautions for patients known or suspected to have serious illnesses transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei. Examples of such illnesses include:|
|Varicella (including disseminated zoster)†|
|In addition to Standard Precautions, use Droplet Precautions for patients known or suspected to have serious illnesses transmitted by large particle droplets. Examples of such illnesses include:|
|Invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, including meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, and sepsis|
|Invasive Neisseria meningitidis disease, including meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis|
|Other serious bacterial respiratory infections spread by droplet transmission, including:|
|Streptococcal (group A) pharyngitis, pneumonia, or scarlet fever in infants and young children|
|Serious viral infections spread by droplet transmission, including:|
|In addition to Standard Precautions, use Contact Precautions for patients known or suspected to have serious illnesses easily transmitted by direct patient contact or by contact with items in the patient's environment. Examples of such illnesses include:|
|Gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin, or wound infections or colonization with multidrug-resistant bacteria judged by the infection control program, based on current state, regional, or national recommendations, to be of special clinical and epidemiologic significance|
|Enteric infections with a low infectious dose or prolonged environmental survival, including:|
|For diapered or incontinent patients: enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella, hepatitis A, or rotavirus|
|Respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, or enteroviral infections in infants and young children|
|Skin infections that are highly contagious or that may occur on dry skin, including:|
|Herpes simplex virus (neonatal or mucocutaneous)|
|Major (noncontained) abscesses, cellulitis, or decubiti|
|Staphylococcal furunculosis in infants and young children|
|Zoster (disseminated or in the immunocompromised host)†|
|Viral hemorrhagic infections (Ebola, Lassa, or Marburg)*|
* See Appendix A for a complete listing of infections requiring precautions, including appropriate footnotes.
† Certain infections require more than one type of precaution.
‡ See CDC "Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Tuberculosis in Health-Care Facilities."(23)
F. Material Safety Data Sheet – MSDS